In this paper, we introduce a fully convolutional network for the document layout analysis task. While state-of-the-art methods are using models pre-trained on natural scene images, our method Doc-UFCN relies on a U-shaped model trained from scratch for detecting objects from historical documents. We consider the line segmentation task and more generally the layout analysis problem as a pixel-wise classification task then our model outputs a pixel-labeling of the input images. We show that Doc-UFCN outperforms state-of-the-art methods on various datasets and also demonstrate that the pre-trained parts on natural scene images are not required to reach good results. In addition, we show that pre-training on multiple document datasets can improve the performances. We evaluate the models using various metrics to have a fair and complete comparison between the methods.